Monday, 31 December 2012

247 IN - Hill Forts of Rajasthan (2013)

Brief Description

"The serial site, situated in the state of Rajastahan, includes six majestic forts in Chittorgarh; Kumbhalgarh; Sawai Madhopur; Jhalawar; Jaipur, and Jaisalmer. The ecclectic architecture of the forts, some up to 20 kilometres in circumference, bears testimony to the power of the Rajput princely states that flourished in the region from the 8th to the 18th centuries. Enclosed within defensive walls are major urban centres, palaces, trading centres and other buildings including temples that often predate the fortifications within which developed an elaborate courtly culture that supported learning, music and the arts. Some of the urban centres enclosed in the fortifications have survived, as have many of the site's temples and other sacred buildings. The forts use the natural defenses offered by the landscape: hills, deserts, rivers, and dense forests. They also feature extensive water harvesting structures, largely still in use today."

247rev-001     Chittorgarh Fort
247rev-002     Kumbhalgarh Fort
247rev-003     Ranthambore Fort
247rev-004     Gagron Fort
247rev-005     Amber Fort
247rev-006     Jaisalmer Fort

 
247-01 Chittorgarh Fort

247-05 Amber Fort

247-05 Amber Fort - Ganesh Pol

1338 IN - The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010)

Brief Description

"The Jantar Mantar, in Jaipur, is an astronomical observation site built in the early 18th century. It includes a set of some 20 main fixed instruments. They are monumental examples in masonry of known instruments but which in many cases have specific characteristics of their own. Designed for the observation of astronomical positions with the naked eye, they embody several architectural and instrumental innovations. This is the most significant, most comprehensive, and the best preserved of India's historic observatories. It is an expression of the astronomical skills and cosmological concepts of the court of a scholarly prince at the end of the Mughal period."
简塔•曼塔天文台

"印度斋浦尔的简塔•曼塔天文台建成于18世纪初,建筑为砖石结构。天文台内建有一组由20多个主要固定装置构成的观测设 备。它们是已知观测装置中的不朽杰作,并在许多方面有着自身的特点。简塔•曼塔天文台为用肉眼进行天文观测而设计,其建筑和装置都采用了不少创新设计。它 是印度最重要、最全面、保存也最完好的古天文台,展现了印度莫卧儿时代末期对宇宙的认知以及探究天文学的能力。"
Source UNESCO WH website http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1338
Courtesy of seetas from postcrossing forum

Sunday, 30 December 2012

255 IN - Fatehpur Sikri (1986)

Brief Description

"Built during the second half of the 16th century by the Emperor Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri (the City of Victory) was the capital of the Mughal Empire for only some 10 years. The complex of monuments and temples, all in a uniform architectural style, includes one of the largest mosques in India, the Jama Masjid."
法塔赫布尔西格里

"法塔赫布尔西格里(胜利之城),由阿克巴皇帝(Emperor Akbar)于16世纪后半期而建,它作为莫卧儿王国的首都只有约十年的历史。城中的整体建筑和寺庙都遵循统一的建筑风格,其中包括印度最大的清真寺渣墨清真寺(Jama Masjid)。"
Source UNESCO WH website http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/255
Buland Darwaza

Jami Masjid

Panch Mahal

Courtesy of ahmedvnit from postcrossing forum
Caravanserai

Salim Chisti
Marble screen of Salim Chisti


Maryam's House

Column of Panch Mahal


Saturday, 29 December 2012

252 IN - Taj Mahal (1983)

Brief Description

"An immense mausoleum of white marble, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife, the Taj Mahal is the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."

泰姬陵
"泰姬陵是一座由白色大理石建成的巨大陵墓清真寺,是莫卧儿皇帝沙贾汗(Shah Jahan)为纪念他心爱的妃子于1631年至1648年在阿格拉修建的。泰姬陵是印度穆斯林艺术的瑰宝奇葩,是世界遗产中令世人赞叹的经典杰作之一。"

Source UNESCO WH website http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/252





interior

251 IN - Agra Fort (1983)

Brief Description

"Near the gardens of the Taj Mahal stands the important 16th-century Mughal monument known as the Red Fort of Agra. This powerful fortress of red sandstone encompasses, within its 2.5-km-long enclosure walls, the imperial city of the Mughal rulers. It comprises many fairy-tale palaces, such as the Jahangir Palace and the Khas Mahal, built by Shah Jahan; audience halls, such as the Diwan-i-Khas; and two very beautiful mosques."

阿格拉古堡
"与泰姬花园毗邻的红色阿格拉古堡,是16世纪重要的莫卧儿王朝纪念建筑。它是由红沙石建成的坚固堡垒,围墙长2.5公里, 把莫卧儿统治者的皇宫围在中间。古堡里有许多宛如童话故事一样的宫殿,如沙贾汗修建的贾汗吉尔宫或称卡斯宫,有迪凡-伊-卡斯会客厅和两座非常秀丽的清真 寺。"

Source UNESCO WH website http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/251



Friday, 28 December 2012

IN5742 - Delhi A Heritage City (2012)

MEHRAULI 
NIZAMUDDIN  
SHAHJAHANABAD  
NEW DELHI

 
Purana Qila (old fort)

231 IN - Red Fort Complex (2007)

Brief Description

"The Red Fort Complex was built as the palace fort of Shahjahanabad – the new capital of the fifth Mughal Emperor of India, Shah Jahan. Named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone, it is adjacent to an older fort, the Salimgarh, built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546, with which it forms the Red Fort Complex. The private apartments consist of a row of pavilions connected by a continuous water channel, known as the Nahr-i-Behisht (Stream of Paradise). The Red Fort is considered to represent the zenith of Mughal creativity which, under the Shah Jahan, was brought to a new level of refinement. The planning of the palace is based on Islamic prototypes, but each pavilion reveals architectural elements typical of Mughal building, reflecting a fusion of Persian, Timurid and Hindu traditions The Red Fort’s innovative planning and architectural style, including the garden design, strongly influenced later buildings and gardens in Rajasthan, Delhi, Agra and further afield."
德里红堡群

"德里红堡建筑群是建在印度莫卧儿王朝第五代国王沙贾汉(1628-1658年)的新首府——沙赫杰汗纳巴德的宫殿。因其大 规模的红色砂岩围墙而得名。红堡毗邻1546年Islam Shah Sur建造的萨林加尔古堡,两者共同构成了红堡建筑群。私人寓所由一排亭子构成,亭子之间靠连续的水渠连接,这些水渠称作Nahr-i-Behisht, 或“天堂水流”。宫殿的设计模仿了《古兰经》对于天堂的描述,殿内刻有这样一句话:“如果人间有天堂,那么天堂就在这里,不在别处。”人们把红堡看作莫卧 儿王朝创造力达到顶峰的典范,在沙贾汉国王的带领下,其设计登上了新的高度。宫殿的规划以伊斯兰原型为依据,而每座亭子展现了具有莫卧儿王朝典型建筑特征 的元素,反映出波斯、贴木儿王朝和印度建筑传统的相互融合。红堡的创新性规划和建筑风格,及其花园设计,对于后来拉贾斯坦、德里、阿格拉和其他地方的建筑 及花园产生了极大的影响。历史事件的价值进一步强化了建筑本身的重要性。红堡建筑群通过其建筑反映了印度从莫卧儿王朝时期到印度独立之间各个阶段的历史发 展。"

Source UNESCO WH website http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/231










232 IN - Humayun's Tomb, Delhi (1993)

Brief Description

"This tomb, built in 1570, is of particular cultural significance as it was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent. It inspired several major architectural innovations, culminating in the construction of the Taj Mahal."

德里的胡马雍陵
"建于1570年的胡马雍陵,是印度次大陆的第一座花园陵墓,因而有着特殊的文化意义。它引起了建筑领域内几项重要的创新,而这种创新在泰姬陵的建筑中达到了顶峰。"

Source UNESCO WH website http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232
 
 









233 IN - Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)

Brief Description

"Built in the early 13th century a few kilometres south of Delhi, the red sandstone tower of Qutb Minar is 72.5 m high, tapering from 2.75 m in diameter at its peak to 14.32 m at its base, and alternating angular and rounded flutings. The surrounding archaeological area contains funerary buildings, notably the magnificent Alai-Darwaza Gate, the masterpiece of Indo-Muslim art (built in 1311), and two mosques, including the Quwwatu'l-Islam, the oldest in northern India, built of materials reused from some 20 Brahman temples."

德里的顾特卜塔及其古建筑

"顾特卜塔位于德里南部几公里处,建于13世纪早 期。这座红砂石尖塔高72.5米。基座直径14.32米,塔峰直径2.75米,从下往上逐渐变细,塔身棱角状和圆状的凹槽装饰穿插出现。周围的考古地区包 括一些墓葬建筑:著名的有建于1311年的印度穆斯林艺术的精品阿拉伊-达尔瓦扎门;以及两座清真寺,其一是库瓦图伊斯兰清真寺。该寺是印度北部最古老的 清真寺,其建筑材料取自20余座婆罗门寺庙。"

Source UNESCO WH website http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/233